Volume 1: Issue 1

1. Determination of Selected Trace Metal in Banana Growing At Kola Shele, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.
Author(S): Tsegaye Fekadu Egza

Abstract: A study was carried out to determine the accumulation of trace metal in the banana sample by atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The metal investigated were Fe, Zn, Cu, Co and Cd. The level of Zn is highest whereas the level of Co and Cd was lowest. The concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu, Co and Cd were found to be 2.82, 4.0, 0.233,0,0 and 5.06, 13.18, 0.117,0,0 in peal and flash of banana respectively. The overall content of this trace metal in the banana investigated where found to be within the permissible limit recommended by the FAO/WHO. The result shows that the accumulation of trace metal in the banana is of nutritional interest.

2. Review on Asymmetric Transformations with Chiral Phase-Transfer Catalysts.
Author(s): Tesfaye Tebeka and Atitegebe Abera

Abstract: This review focuses onasymmetric transformations with Chiral Phase-Transfer Catalysts and its application. Phase-transfer catalysis is practical methodology for organic synthesis. It is possible to achieve highly enantio selective transformations under phase-transfer conditions for a variety of ─C─C─ ─C─O─ and ─C─N─ bond-forming reactions. The asymmetric transformations using modified cinchona alkaloids, chiral spiro ammonium salts and crown ether are among the primary source of effective chiral phase-transfer catalyst, which allows access to enantiomerically pure unnatural amino acids and synthetically useful adducts containing quaternary stereogenic centers. The advantage of this method is its simple experimental procedure, large chiral pool, mild reaction condition, inexpensive, environmentally benign reagent and use of simple and inexpensive reactants. Nowadays, it appears to be the most important synthetic method used in various fields of organic chemistry, and also found widespread industrial applications. This review summarizes the synthesis application, enantio selective transformation of some selected reaction, biological activities and catalytic activities of Phase-transfer catalysis and especial emphasis is given for organo catalysis. In asymmetric organo catalyst, it is possible to obtain chiral organic products in high enantio enriched form by steric hindrance approach method. The advantage of organic molecules as chiral catalysts complements the traditional organometallic and biological approaches to asymmetric catalysis.

3. A Review of Eco-Friendly Preservative and Bio-Tannin Materials Using Powdered Barks of Local Plants for the Processing of Goatskin.
Author(s): Franco John Unango, Ramesh Duraisamy and Karthikeyan M Ramasamy

Abstract: Skin is a raw material which is considered as the heart of leather making process. Skin falls vulnerable upon the flayed of the animals and is seriously invaded by bacteria if it is not well protected. Curing and preservation of raw stock resist putrefaction and reserve leather quality. Worldwide, most commonly used skin preservation is by using table salt which is accused of polluting the environment by increasing soil salinity, affecting water body, releasing more than 40%  dissolved solids and 55% chlorides etc. Further, on the side of leather tanning, 80-90% of all leathers is manufactured by tanning with basic chromium (III) salt, because of its excellent features and is also solemnly accused that; its safety record is cautionary, uncontrolled emission of chromium (VI) and it is a limited natural resources. Pollution control authorities of many countries are imposed severe restrictions on both salt preservation and chrome tanning forcing the tanners and researchers to look for possible alternative ways that are naturally abundant, easily obtainable, low priced, eco-friendly and offer competitive with existing tanned leather performances. The critical reviewed was targeting the recent alternatives trends to skin/hides salt preservation as well as vegetable tanning as a possible way to replace the use of basic chromium salt for the sustainability of leather industry and to further suggest another preservative and vegetable plant to be used in future studies.

4. Clarifying Capacity of Eco-Friendly Nano Cao and Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus) Extract on the Processing of Sugarcane Juice: A Review.
Author(s) : Majur Mading Makur, Ramesh Duraisamy and Tewodros Birhanu

Abstract: Sugar cane is the raw material for sugar factories worldwide that amount to about 70% of both refined and raw sugars with only 30% of sugar from sugar beets. The cane or beets are crushed in the factory to extract juice using crushers and millers. The extracted juice is clarified to remove impurities and raise the pH. The important point of clarificant is to produce clear Juice with the lowest or null concentration of insoluble and soluble impurities to achieve maximum sugar yield Chemicals like calcium oxide, CO2, SO2 which are aided with polyamines, bentonite, separanAp 30 and hodag flocculants of high molecular weight polyacrylamide polymer are used to help improve color that is one of the most important parameters in raw sugar quality. The use of SO2 is discouraged by many countries because of the risk involved with residue in sugar and its importation together with CaO which enforced additional funding on manufacturers. However, chemicals used for clarification are expensive and caused environmental problems in areas around the sugar industry. Therefore, nano and vegetative clarificants were considered as potential clarifier by producers of raw sugar and jaggery and even in water treatment. Also, nanotechnology was reported to have worked well in the treatment of waste water and in food industries to detect chemicals and remove biological substances.

5. An analysis of Quality characteristics of Bamboo/cotton blended yarns of Rotor and Ring spun.
Author(s) : G. Nagarajan, Dr. T. Ramachandran and S.Boobalan

Abstract: Denim fabrics are in general manufactured by using 100% cotton fibers.  A novel attempt has been made by using bamboo/cotton yarns in warp and weft directions to produce denim fabrics using ring yarns in warp and rotor yarns in weft directions. In this research work, bamboo/cotton yarns are manufactured in different blend compositions like 100% bamboo, 100% cotton,70:30, 50:50 and 30:70 ratios. Ne 10 and Ne 16 carded yarns are manufactured from both the ring and rotor spinning systems. The yarns manufactured out of these two spinning systems have been critically analyzed for their quality characteristics like Unevenness, Imperfections, Hairiness, friction, abrasion, strength and elongation. The influence of blend ratios on yarn quality characteristics in ring and rotor yarns has been analyzed and the optimum blend proportion which gives the best quality has been investigated.

6. Measuring Selection Intensities among Kolam Population: Manifested through Differential Fertility and Differential Mortality.
Author(s) :Dr. Bharathi K

Abstract: The objective of the study is to understand the selection intensities among Kolam, a particularly vulnerable tribal group (PVTG) of Adilabad district of Telangana State, India.  Two prominent methods were employed to understand the intensities by using Crow’s index and modified formula as given by Johnston and Kensinger’s method. The intensities are computed on the basis of the reproductive history of mother with completed fertility and the results were compared with the available works on populations belonging to Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and India. The Crow’s total index (II) value was found to be 0.3863. The mortality (Im) component was found to be 0.2151 while fertility (If) component was found to be 0.1712. The contribution of mortality component is greater than that of fertility component among the present studied population using Crow’s index.  According to Johnston and Kensinger, the total index (II) was found to be 0.6017.  Fertility component was found to be 0.2368, prenatal mortality component (Ime) and postnatal mortality component (Ime/Pb) where observed to be 0.0675 and 0.0933 respectively. Therefore, it is clear from the results that postnatal mortality contributes more than prenatal mortality for selection, i.e., Johnston and Kensinger’s Index (0.6017) contributes more towards selection intensity than Crow’s index (0.3863). Natural selection takes place when there is variability of fitness observed through the differences in fertility and mortality in any population.

7. A Review on the Investigation of Biologically Active Natural Compounds on Cotton Fabrics as an Antibacterial Textile Finishing.
Author(s) : Franco John Unango & Karthikeyan M Ramasamy

Abstract: The scientific studies have considered the propolis, beewax and Chitosan as antibacterial agents for 100% cotton fabrics in recent years as an emulsion to functionalize cotton textile materials. But yet no more research had done on these natural compounds. Chitosan has a long historical background of being used as an antibacterial agent in different fields. The concentration, Molecular Weight, and Degree of Deacylation of chitosan and the bacterial strain are the main factors that affect the antibacterial behavior of chitosan. The used of chitosan as an antibacterial finish along with a durable press finishing agent on 100% cotton fabrics was found that antibacterial activity remained to a level of 80% after 10 repeated launders. The presence of the biologically active natural compounds on the cotton substrates modified the surface of the textile fibers. The treatment also improved fabric comfort properties, the cotton substrates became less air permissive and more hygroscopic after the treatment. The research found that the treated cotton fabric showed higher reduction (97%) in the number of colonies of S. aureus bacteria compared to the number of colonies on a 55/45% wood pulp/polyester spun-laced nonwoven fabric. The antibacterial performance of the functionalized cotton fabrics treated with those biologically active natural compounds has the potentials to be used in medical fields . Furthermore, the used of microcapsules of honey as core and chitosan as a shield on the medical gauzes showed good performance in the wound healing. These treated medical gauzes have the healing and antimicrobial behaviors of honey and chitozan and that study had proved the usage of honey and Chitosan as an antibacterial in treating medical gauzes for the human diabetes . Up to date none of the natural compounds have been reported to have negative side effects on the human skin when used as antibacterial clothing.

8. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin (II) and Lead (II) Complexes with Benzylidene Aniline Ligand.
Author(s) : Tolessa Egeta Dufera, Sofani Tafesse and Ramesh Duraisamy

Abstract: The Schiff base (Benzylidene aniline molecule) and its complexes with Sn (II) and Pb (II) have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic and electro-analytical techniques. The ligand, Benzylidene aniline has been synthesized by condensation reaction of benzaldehyde and aniline. The metal complexes were prepared by mixing of saturated solutions of metal salts and ligand in 1:2 ratios in methanol and Dimethyl sulfoxide solvents, followed by their characterization using magnetic susceptibility, molar conductivity, chloride estimation and spectral studies. It was found that titled organic ligand acts as monodentate and in both complexes it is proposed to be interacted in metal to ligand 1: 2 ratio with the metals to form organo tin (II) and organo lead (II) complexes through the direct method. Overall experimental results show that a diamagnetic and square planar geometry of both complexes formed

9. Examination of Different Inks Available in Ethiopia Using VSC 8000, U.V-Visible Spectrophotometer and TLC: Study of Their Discrimination Potential
Authos(s) : Natinael Mekonnen

Abstract: Ink analysis is the most challenging and commonly encountered problem faced by a forensic chemist. Ink present on documents such as contracts, cheques, testaments, medical records, to quote just a few, is regularly contested for its authentication. In this paper, we have examined the various inks available in Ethiopia (specially Arba Minch) using chromatography and spectroscopy methods, and have tried to decode the chemical compositions of these inks emphasizing on coloring agents followed by evaluating the discrimination potential of these techniques. This study is the first kind of detailed examination of inks available in Ethiopia as there is no precedence literature to it. It was found out that the examined ink samples can be divided into five major groups having mainly rhodamine b, rhodamine 6G and crystal violet as coloring agents. The TLC and UV-Vis techniques although discriminate inks samples to a little better extent than VSC, but VSC should be preferred due to its non-destructive nature.