Volume 2 : Issue 1

International Research Journal of Science and Technology

1.Characterization of Symbiotic Effectiveness of Rhizobia Nodulating Field Pea (Pisum Sativum).
Author(s): Asrat MekonnenTeto

Abstract: Field Pea is one of the most important Legumes plants and widely grown in Ethiopia. A study was made to re- isolate, characterize, and select best rhizobia for field pea. Results showed that all the 25 isolates exhibited typical colony characteristics and presumptive reactions of fast growing rhizobia. Out of the 25 isolates, 3(KL3, BR1 andCF5) relatively superior isolates were selected in sterilized sand. All isolates characterized their morphological and physiological characteristics. All isolates formed watery and mucoid colonies on YEMA medium, their mean growth time mostly between 2 &4 hours and failed to grow on peptone glucose agar medium and to solubilize inorganic phosphate. Almost all isolates were tolerated to pH 5to 9, 2% and 3% salt concentration, and at temperature of 15oc to 35oc. The isolates were also tolerant to erythromycin, streptomycin and ampicillin, and relatively sensitive to penicillin and chloroamphenicol at concentration of 50μg/ml. All isolates utilized to sucrose, glucanate, galactose and fructose as the sole source of carbon, and almost all isolates grow on YEMA medium containing galactose (90%), fructose (88.9%) and glucanate (76.7%) and the isolates utilized many amino acids as the source of nitrogen. BR1 was the most competitive inoculant with nodule occupancy of 75%; followed by KL3 and CF5 with nodule occupancy of 60 and 50% respectively. The mean nodule number, nodule dry weight, mean shoot dry weight and N content and of the host plants inoculated with different isolates showed variations. Particularly BR1 can be recommended as inoculants and good strain for field pea in the future.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2020.020101

2.First-Principle Study of Zinc Sulfide (Zinc Blende, Rock Salt and Wurtzite): Stability, Phase Transition and Structural Parameters.
Author(s): Ibrahim Isah, Mustapha Isah

Abstract: The research investigates the stability, phase transition and structural parameters of zinc sulfide (Zinc blende, Rock salt and Wurtzite) using first-principle. The study employs generalized gradient approximation (GGA) within density functional theory (DFT) in which ultra-soft pseudopotential (Zn.pbe-van.UPFb and S.pbe-van_bm.UPFc) were used for both zinc and sulfide respectively. Self-consistent calculation was made using cut-off energies of 26Ry (~350 eV) and 180 Ry (~2450eV) for the cut-off wave function within the convergence accuracy of ~1mRy with respect to total energy and 0.5kbar in case of pressure. The results obtained show that Wurtzite is more stable because it has lowest energy among the three structures, there is transition from zinc blende to rock salt and from Wurtzite to rock salt with transition pressures of 17.5GPa and 16.9GPa respectively and all the three polymorphs are semi-conductors due to their band gap.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2020.020102

3.Sreenarayana Guru - Teachings, Caste, Religion and God.
Author(s): Shini Joseph

Abstract: A society that segregates caste, religion and God is growing in traditional times and expanding in modern times. This article explains about Teaching, Cast, Religion and God in the opinion of SreeNarayana Guru. Through this article we are able to clearly understand and think about the social views and opinions of SreeNarayana Guru. Through this introduction one can understand the social history and social activities of SreeNarayana Guru. This article is also useful to reflect on the social activities and ideas of SreeNarayana Guru, known as the 'Father of the Renaissance in Kerala'. Also, a section on Teaching of Sree Narayana Guru has been added to the article. Points 1 - 18 can be seen in it. The difference that existed in the traditional era can still be seen to be secretly growing like a deadly disease among the people. Reading the part of the teachings of Sree Narayana Guru, although the poison of cast in the human mind has not completely changed, it can change to some extent. At the same time, it makes clear about Religion and God from the point of view of SreeNarayana Guru.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2020.020103

4.Caste Formation in India.
Author(s): Sajitha D V

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to look at how caste formation, a structural feature of Indian society and the changes that have taken place in caste formations over time, are used by caste in today’s society. The structure of Indian society is based on the caste system. But the caste system was only a product of the upper caste Brahmins of India. In fact, the upper castes enslaved the lower castes only for economic purposes. For that, they used caste as the first extreme. According to historians, the caste system in India was only part of a division of labor and was never caste-based. Because there is no mention in Manusmriti, Bhagavat Gita, Vedic and Later-Vedic literatues about a caste society that separates man from man on the basis of caste. That is why our social reformers proclaimed that caste evils should be eradicated from the society and they worked hard for it and succeeded to some extent. Thus, Independent India was able to build a casteless society as a result of the work of social reformers. But after independence we were able to see a caste politics. What we see today is that every political party is using caste as a tool for their vote bank during elections to consolidate their power. Therefore, caste politics is one of the major challenges facing India.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2020.020104

5. A Review on the Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Growing in Libya and Their Therapeutic Properties.
Author(s): Abdullah F Abogmaza, Kheri F Keer, Ayad A Takrizzah, Esam Bashir Yahya

Abstract: Plants are a rich source of diverse metabolites that have been traditionally used for thousands of years all over the world, providing safer and inexpensive therapeutic option for millions of people in developing countries including Libya. Many types of medicinal plants growing in Libya possess significantly important curative activities and have been traditionally used for treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer, as well as their biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic and insecticidal properties, etc. Apart from the therapeutic activities, most of Libyan nation rather to use natural and plant-based materials for their daily activities such as food preservation, food flavoring as well as medicinal usages. This review presents the most important medicinal plants growing in Libya with their traditional usage, medical properties, and compare the reliability of using these plants as therapeutic agents. Presenting the latest works that have been done in term of justification of the traditional use and scientifically proving its ability as therapeutic agent.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2020.020105

6. Impact of Water Treatment Processes on Selected Heavy Metals Concentrations in Drinking Water Within Katsina Metropolis.
Author(s): Yusuf Abdulrashid, Nuraddeen Abdurrahman, Kamaladdeen Abdullahi, Aisha Ado Shehu

Abstract: The research focused on the impact of water treatment processes on selected heavy metals concentrations in drinking water within Katsina metropolis. Water samples were collected from taps, sachets and Ajiwa dam raw waters and analyzed for Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn and Mg using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The solid residues filtered from the treated samples were also analyzed using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. The result obtained from the water analysis shows that Cu concentration determined between (0.862-17.232) µg/L with the highest concentration below WHO limit in Ajiwa dam raw water, Pb concentration determined between (0.000-109.63) µg/L with the highest concentration above WHO limit in Ajiwa dam raw water, Ni concentration was detected in almost all the water samples, with the concentration between (0.000-0.72) µg/L, all the concentrations were below WHO limit, Mn concentration determined between (16.554-66.234) µg/L with the highest concentration within WHO limit in Ajiwa dam raw water, Zn concentration determined between (47.286-58.122) µg/L with the highest concentration within WHO limit in tap water, Mg concentration determined between (102.5-213.77) µg/L with the highest concentration within WHO limit in Ajiwa dam raw water. While the amount(%) of isolated element shows that Si(42.51), O(25.39), K(0.24), Ca(1.16), Ti(0.16), Mn(0.04), Fe(1.19), Cu(0.02), Zn(0.009), Ag(0.40), Ba(0.31), Ce(0.03), Nd(0.002), Eu(0.03), Re(0.04), Cl(1.14) and S(0.22) with Silicon with the highest percentage and Neodymium with the least percentage value. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that Pb (p-value 0.000), Cu (p-value 0.000), Fe (p-value 0.000), Ni (p-value 0.490), Mn (p-value 0.007), Zn (p-value 0.000) and Mg (p-value 0.046). This results show that the concentrations of heavy metals analyzed were either removed or drastically reduced to tolerable level or standard limit set by WHO for safe drinking water through series of water treatment processes and this render the water in the areas safe for drinking for now.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2020.020106

7.Antifungal Activity of Trichoderma Viridae, Calotropis Gigantea Extract Against Fungal Pathogens of Jute Plant.
Author(s): Kabiraj Khadka, Bijay Kumar Shrestha, Jenish Shakya, Bidhya Dhungana, Hemanta Khanal

Abstract: Jute is infected by more than 12 types of phytopathogenic fungi. Charcoal rot, anthracnose and Fusarium rot are major jute diseases of eastern Nepal. Hence, the objective of this study was to control three fungal pathogens viz; Macrophominia phaseolinia, Fusarium solani and Colletotrichum species using Trichoderma viridae and Calotropis gigantea extract. All fungal pathogens were isolated from jute field. Occurrence of each disease was checked. Calotropis gigantea extract as well as Trichoderma showed good antifungal activity. In this study, 7% methanolic extract solution of Calotropis showed 43.6% inhibition of Colletotrichum, 38.91% inhibition on Fusarium solani and 37.81% inhibition on Macrophominia phaseolinia. Similarly, Trichoderma viridae inhibited the Fusarium solani growth by 51.33%, Macrophominia phaseolinia growth by 39.50% and Colletotrichum growth by 36.12%. The antifungal activity of Calotropis extract against test and control was statistically significant (p<0.001). It is concluded that biological control agents like Trichoderma viridae, Calotropis gigantea can effectively reduce the fungal phytopathogens of jute and can be used as good alternatives to fungicides in farming.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2020.020107

8.A cluster of neurobrucellosis at king hussein medical center, Jordan- a comprehensive analysis and review.
Author(s): Al Dhomour Aktham, Al Shyyab Awni, Al Etan Shaher, Al Adamat mohammed,Amin Bani Salamah, Al Habahbeh Laith.

Abstract: In this retrospective review, we describe the neurological clinical manifestations in five cases diagnosed with neurobrucellosis over two years between 2018 and 2020, and the application of different proposed criteria for establishing the diagnosis and treatment of neurobrucellosis. All cases were confirmed to have brucellosis with laboratory tests, and all were living in Jordan, which is considered part of a highly endemic area within the Middle East. The neurobrucellosis proposed criteria was applied, which required one or more of the following: (1) signs and symptoms consistent with neurobrucellosis, (2) presence of anti-Brucella antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and serum with or without isolation of Brucella species in CSF and serum, (3) cerebrospinal fluid analysis shows: lymphocytosis, high protein level, and low glucose level (4) radiological findings on MRI or CT. In all five cases, we have confirmed direct contact with animals or animal products either as a consumer or as a farmworker. Their signs and symptoms were consistent with brucellosis. In all cases, haematological and CSF results, in addition to imaging findings using magnetic resonance and computed tomography, were highly coherent with neurobrucellosis. Neurobrucellosis can present with different clinical manifestations, either as a sole site of infection like acute or subacute meningitis or myelitis, or in context of a multi variable systemic disease. In patients with unusual neurological clinical presentations, and those with persistent chronic symptoms like headache, malaise, or depression, neurobrucellosis should be highly suspected, especially in endemic areas. Such patients must have a prolonged course of antibiotics between 6 to 18 months with close monitoring of their serum and CSF examination.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2020.020108