Volume 2 : Issue 2

International Research Journal of Science and Technology

1.Characterization of farming and Agricultural Production Systems, Production Constraints and Need Identification in Debub Ari and Benatsemay Districts of Southern Ethiopia.
Author(s): Demerew Getaneh, Tegegn Tesfaye and Yidnekachew Alemayehu

Abstract: The study was conducted in two districts of South Omo zone namely, Benatsemay and Debub ri districts. The study was implemented through a multidisciplinary team of livestock researchers, which comprising of socio-economist, veterinarians, animal breeders and development workers. The objectives of the survey were: to describe the nature of the livestock farming system and production practices; analyze and priories the major constraints that hinder the development of livestock production; identify the opportunities and constraints of livestock production in the study area; collect the socio-economic characteristics and to use the information as a baseline data for future intervention. Data were collected by semi-structured interview, focus group discussion and secondary data was collected from different sources. Livestock has a multi-function in the study areas and helping as a source of draft power, income generation, and milk and meat production. Although there are accesses to vast fertile land for feed and forage development, huge livestock number and presence of enough family labour force in the areas, there are several constraints in livestock husbandry such as shortage of grazing land/feed, disease, market problem, water problem, lack of technological supply. However, little attention has been given to identify and characterize these livestock production constraints in the districts. It is with this understanding that the present study was initiated and conducted.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2021.020201

Author(s): Omorodion Nnenna and Emuejeraye Sophia

Abstract: Processed food products have shown high potentials to be contaminated in suitable environmental conditions. Groundnut oil is one of such products. The study was conducted to determine the safest branded and unbranded groundnut oil sold in markets. Total bacterial count and Total fungal count were evaluated using standard microbiological methods. The result obtained showed that all the branded oil was free from bacterial contamination since they went through a series of refining processes. Although, they were contaminated with fungi. All the unbranded groundnut oil had bacterial and fungal contaminations of species which includes; Bacillus (20%), Staphylococcus (20%), Enterobacter (6%), Micrococcus (27%), Fusarium and Aspergillus sp. The total heterotrophic bacteria count for the unbranded groundnut oil samples ranged from 9.4×102 to 2.3×102 cfu/ml while total fungal counts for unbranded groundnut oil samples ranged from 5.5 ×100 and 2.0×100 cfu/ml. The total bacterial count for branded groundnut oil ranged from 3.0×100 and 2.0×100 which were within acceptable standards. The physicochemical parameters for unbranded groundnut oil did not exceed the acceptable limit. Nevertheless, consumers are encouraged to use more refined and branded groundnut oil as these falls closer within acceptable standards than regular unbranded ones.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2021.020202

3. DSC and Dielectric Properties of Epoxy Resin Reinforced with (ZrO2, CuO) Nanoparticles
Author(s): Haneen M. Hassan, Sabah A. Salman

Abstract: In this research the additive effect of (Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2), Copper Oxide (CuO)) nanoparticles to epoxy resin as a matrix have been studied, in addition to manufacturing hybrid composites from the same nanoparticles which are (CuO/ZrO2) to epoxy resin as a matrix too. The hand lay-up method is using to manufacturing the composites from the epoxy resin and the nanoparticles with different weight ratios ((0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9) wt%), the thermal and dielectric tests have been done of all prepared composites. The effect of the weight ratio of the reinforcement materials on the thermal properties of all-polymer composites has been studied also. The practical results have shown that the differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) test has shown that the glass transition temperature of all polymer composites increases at all weight ratios of reinforcement materials compared with pure epoxy and the highest value of glass transition temperature is to the composite (EP-ZrO2) which equal (89.97 °C), also the crystalline melting temperature of all polymer composites has shown irregular behaviour compared with pure epoxy by increasing the weight ratio of reinforcement materials. The effect of the weight ratio of the reinforcement materials on the dielectric properties of all polymer composites have been studied, the practical results have shown a decrease in dielectric constant with increase the frequency for all weight ratios of reinforcement materials, and also increasing the dielectric constant with increasing the weight ratio of the reinforcement materials at the same frequency.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2021.020203

4. Assessment of Hygienic Practice on Camel Meat Handlers, and Identification of Main Points of Bacterial Contamination in Abattoir and Butcheries of Nagelle Town, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia
Author(s): KEDIR ABDI HASSEN ,Suleyman Abdureman Omer, Nuradin Abdi Hassen

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the hygienic practice during handling of raw camel meat and identification of the major source of bacterial contamination at abattoirs and butcheries of Nagelle town. To achieve the objectives of this study, the data were collected from 68 camel meat sample and 60 from swab samples both from abattoir and butchers workers and semi-structured interview questionnaire, and site observation checklist were used. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The study isolated and identified that all the tested positive camel meat samples were subjected to E. coli count, Staphylococcus aureus count and aerobic plate count (APC). The S. aureus, E. coli and Salmonella spp were detected from the total of collected raw camel meat sample12(35.3%),16(47%) and 8(23.5%) at abattoirs and 19(55.9%), 22(64.7%) and 10(29.4%) from at butcheries respectively. Mean S. aureus counts for camel meat were 2.76 and 3.07 log10 CFU/g while mean E. coli counts were 2.81 and 3.94 log10 CFU/g, from abattoirs and butcheries respectively. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the E. coli at abattoirs and butcheries and S. aureus count at abattoirs and butcheries, respectively. Mean Aerobic Plate Counts of camel meat from abattoirs (4.67 log10 CFU/g) were not significantly different as compared to APC values of butcheries (5.49 log10 CFU/g). The isolated bacteria were in decreasing order E. coli, S. aureus and Salmonella spp were detected from swab sample such as person hand, environment, cutting board and knife at abattoirs and butcheries respectively. Thus the present study reveals the fact that raw camel meat is heavily contaminated with the high incidence of bacterial pathogen and the major source of bacterial contamination were in decreasing order person hand, environment, cutting board and knife respectively. It is concluded that the major source of bacterial contamination of raw camel meat at butcheries house than abattoirs in Nagelle town. Therefore there is an urgent necessity to minimize the contamination of camel meat handling at abattoirs and sold at butcheries house by implying proper general hygienic and equipment sanitation practices.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2021.020204

5. Impacts of Urbanization on Seasonal Water Quality Dynamics in Mudi River in Blantyre District, Malawi
Author(s): Sylvester Richard Chikabvumbwa, Singanan Malairajan , Sylvester William Chisale

Abstract: This study investigated the status of water quality in the Mudi River due to urbanization and increasing soil erosion levels. Physical, biological and chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, electric conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), faecal coliforms in Mudi River were collected in the dry season (October 2019) and wet season (January 2020) from three selected strategic places i.e. before the city, within the city and after the city and analyzed. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists and ArcGIS 10.8. The results revealed that the Mudi River has poor water quality as most parameters exceeded the recommended limits thresholds. Even though the water quality in the river was significantly better in the wet season than the dry season (p<0.05) due to the dilution effect of the rainfall, the water in the river was significantly polluted. This study recommends increased environmental awareness, integrated solid waste management in the city, proper drainage systems, rehabilitation of sewer lines, and creating a buffer to protect river bank cultivation and continuous monitoring of the river using Geographic Information Systems.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2021.020205

6. Malathion Prompted Genotoxicity Assessment in rDNA ITS1 and ITS2 Sequence of Anopheles stephensi
Author(s): Reshma Sinha, Preety Bhinder

Abstract: Indiscriminate use of pesticides in agricultural practices has developed its toxicity in humans and animals exposed to it. Malathion is a non-systemic insecticide belonging to organophosphate class. It is used in controlling Mediterranean flies, bugs, and aphids in fields. The present study was aimed to evaluate the malathion induced genotoxicity in Internal transcribed spacer, ITS 1 and 2 sequences of rDNA of mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. For this, second instar larvae of mosquito were exposed to 2.54 ppm (LC20) of malathion for an acute period of 24h. Post-treatment, larvae were allowed to develop into adults, and Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of rDNA were amplified by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR amplification revealed significant point mutations in form of transition, transversion, deletion and insertion in treated ITS 1 and 2 sequences compared to control. ITS 1 sequence showed deletion of 26 bases, insertion of 141 bases, and substitutions of 236 bases compared to control. While, treated ITS 2 sequence suffered 48 deletions, 54 insertions, and 117 substitutions of nucleotide compared to non-treated mosquito sequences. ITS 1 was found to be more affected by malathion toxicity with lowered GC content. Thus, the present study details the toxicity of pesticide in the mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, contributing to the field of toxicology.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2021.020206

7. Efficiency and Acceptability of Mixed Reality Application of Solar System in Teaching Science
Author(s): Michael G. Albino*, Jerico A. Lazaro, Ahljhun L. Olis, Rica B. Requelman, Xyra N. Sanchez

Abstract: The constant changed in technology and the new innovations was undoubtedly contributed largely to education. Mixed Reality (MR), one of the newest technologies and a very promising tool that allows merging of physical reality and virtual environment to enhance teaching and learning process for better and engaging learning experiences. The researchers proposed a “Mixed Reality Application of Solar System” as an assistive tool by the teachers in teaching of the lessons faster through visualizing 3D models of planets in the solar system. In this paper, the researchers made use of descriptive-qualitative technique and a survey in gathering data. The study has undergone testing and evaluation with the help of five (5) IT experts as alpha testers and twenty (20) STEP students of Subic National High School as beta testers using the ISO 9126-1 software quality standards criteria. Alpha tests overall rated mean of 4.53, interpreted as “Excellent” on Functionality, 4.13 “Very Good” on Usability, 4.00 “Very Good” on Efficiency and 4.40 “Excellent” on Portability while beta tests overall rated mean of 4.78 “Excellent” on Functionality, 4.66 ‘Excellent” on Usability, 4.60 “Excellent” on Efficiency and 4.80 “Excellent” on Portability. Respondents were satisfied on the performance of the mixed reality application as manifested on the results of the survey, 4.15 “Very Good” on users’ acceptance and 4.50 “Excellent: on experts’ acceptance. Based on the data gathered from the respondents, the researchers recommended the use of the developed mixed reality application in teaching science. Respondents recommendations were mainly focused on the improvement of the graphics and user interface through adjustment of interactive buttons in the application. The researchers recommended for the future enhancement of the application to the future researchers the capability of the mixed reality application to be available in iOS and personal computers.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2021.020207