Volume 2 : Issue 4

International Research Journal of Science and Technology

1.Pathological impact and Disease burden of Human Onchocerciasis in Endemic areas of Delta State, Nigeria.
Author(s): J. O. Onojafe and A. O. Egwunyenga

Abstract: The context of onchocerciasis being one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in Nigeria; and the predicted increase in the rate of spread of tropical diseases and vectors to higher altitude, as a result of climate change and global warming, underscores the need for more studies on the disease. Thus, this research was conducted to examine the pathological impact and disease burden of human onchocerciasis on the infected in endemic communities in three local government areas of Delta State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase involved four stages. Stage one was visual acuity test on those who volunteered to take part in the research. Stage two was the physical examination of individuals for characteristic onchocercal lesions. The third stage was the collection of skin snips from individuals while the fourth stage was microscopic examination of the skin snips for microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. The second phase examined the impact of the disease and was carried out with the aid of a structured questionnaire. The results showed that human onchocerciasis existed in the study area. Out of the 1,201 persons, comprising of 826 (68.8%) males and 375 (31.2%) females examined, 138 were positive for the onchocercal parasite. The infected, consisted of 101 (12.2%) males and 37 (9.9%) females. Generally, infected persons had manifestations ranging from ocular defects, visual problems to skins disfiguration.Conclusion: In addition to the administration of ivermectin and vector control, psychosocial and economic needs of the infected should be addressed through counseling and offering of palliating assistance to reduce their economic problems and give them feeling of independence.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2021.020401

2. Market Chain Analysis of Smallholder Coffee Producers in Debub Ari District of South Omo Zone, SNNPR.
Author(s): Yidnekachew Alemayehu.

Abstract:This study mainly aimed at analyzing market chain analysis of coffee in the Debub Ari District. The descriptive and S-C-P model was used. Both primary and secondary data were collected from the study area. The multi-stage sampling technique was has been employed for this study. A total of 194 coffee producer household heads have been randomly selected and interviewed with the help of pre-tested structured questionnaire. The focus group discussion and key informants interviews were conducted to supplement the formal data. The results of S-C-P model indicated that the four firms concentration ratio (CR4) result in the study area was found to be tight oligopolistic for both red and dry coffee which accounts 89.2 and 80%, respectively. About 72 % of price setting was done by buyers, 27 % negotiation and 1 % by the producers. There are seven market channels which have been identified in the study area. The computed marketing margin among different actors and channels indicated that the total gross marketing margin (TGMM) of coffee is high in channel I, II, III whereas the producers marketing margin (GMMP) was highest in channel VII. Therefore, the intervention is needed to improve coffee marketing chain through promoting cooperatives, infrastructural development and timely market information for efficient marketing system in the study area.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46378/irjst.2021.020402