Volume 1 : Issue 2 

1. A Study of Physio-Chemical Properties of Healthy and Declined Nagpur Mandarin Orchards .
Author(s): Prashant Joshi, Dhiraj Kadam, Shakti Tayde and Yogesh Dharmik

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to characterize and classify some typical healthy and declined Nagpur mandarin gardens in Warud and Morshi tahsil’s of Amravati District (M.S.). Total forty two representative surface and depth wise soil samples from healthy and declined Nagpur mandarin gardens were collected and analyzed for various physico-chemical properties. The findings revealed that the texture of soil is clayey (40.0 to 59.0 per cent clay in healthy gardens and 47.4 to 61.4 per cent clay in declined gardens). The bulk density and porosity in healthy gardens varied from 1.51 to 1.67 Mg m-3, 35.85 to 43.02 per cent and in declined gardens, it varied from 1.51 to 1.66 Mg m-3 and 25.85 to 43.02 per cent respectively. The pH, organic carbon and CaCO3 content in healthy gardens soils varied from 7.50 to 8.0, 4.80 to 9.00 gm kg-1, 5.35 to 8.31 per cent and in declined gardens, it varied from 7.7 to 8.2, 1.95 to 3.75 gm kg-1, 6.71 to 10.53 per cent respectively. The electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity of healthy gardens soil varied from 0.21 to 0.28 dSm-1, 45.92 to 55.53 cmol (p+) kg ha-1 and in declined gardens it varied from 0.22 to 0.32 dSm-1, 46.20 to 51.92 cmol (p+) kg ha-1 respectively. No significant difference was found in clay, bulk density, porosity, electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity in healthy and declined gardens, however soil reaction was high in declined gardens than healthy gardens. Organic carbon content was high in healthy gardens than declined gardens and free lime content was found low in healthy gardens than declined ones. Depth wise distribution showed that bulk density, pH and electrical conductivity increase with soil depth. Organic carbon and cation exchange capacity decrease with soil depth. The available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of healthy gardens surface soils varied from 206.0 to 273.7 kg ha-1, 25.0 to 38.3 kg ha-1, 324.0 to 672.0 kg ha-1 and in declined gardens it varied from 135.4 to 206.8 kg ha-1, 19.8 to 23.3 kg ha-1, 364.0 to 750.4 kg ha-1 respectively. Available nitrogen and phosphorus content in healthy gardens found more supporting than declined ones. Depth wise distribution showed that available nitrogen and phosphorus showed decreasing trend with the soil depth.

2.A Model to Determine Factors Affecting Students’ Academic Performance: The Case of Amhara Region Agency of Competency, Ethiopia
Author(s): Aklilu Mandefro Messele and Melkamu Addisu

Abstract: At this time the amount of data stored in educational institutions is increasing rapidly. These data contain hidden information for improvement of students’ performance, guidance, teaching, planning, and so on. Identifying factors that influence students’ academic performance help educational stakeholders to take remedial measurements to improve performance of their students. In this paper total of 7,561 students’ data covering the period from 2008-2011 with 28 attributes is used to determine the most influential factors. The classification algorithms J48 algorithm and Naive Bayes algorithm is used to develop the model. Design science research methodology is used as a frame work while the hybrid six-step Cios model is followed to develop the model. Many experiments were done with J48 algorithm and Naive Bayes classifier by changing the default values and reducing the number of attributes. However, 8 experiments are presented for analysis which shown better accuracy than the rest. The results of this study have shown that the data mining techniques are valuable for students’ performance model building and J48 algorithm resulting in highest accuracy (70.3468% & 83.3552%) for practical and theory exams respectively. It also reveal that Education mode of training experience, Level, Purpose of Assessment, Candidate’s category, Age, Sector, Sex, and Employment type found to be the most influential factors for students’ academic achievement. Hence, future research directions are pointed out to come up with an applicable system in the area.

3. Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence, Coping Styles and Psychopathology among Medical Students in District Peshawar
Author(s): Naveeda sarwar, Saima Abid, Ghulam sarwar khan and Adnan sarwar

Abstract: This study was undertaken to assess the relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Coping Styles and Psychopathology among medical students in district Peshawar, Pakistan.200 participants were recruited for data collection through purposive convenient sampling. Cross sectional research design was used. The age range of participants was 18 to 25 years with the participation of male (n=117) and female (n=83). Subjects were selected from public and private medical colleges. To determine the role of Demographic variables ,age,gender,father income, college and self-reports measures of Emotional Intelligence scale by Anila & Rizwana (2010),Brief Cope Inventory by Akhtar (2005) and Psychopathic deviation by Mirza (MMPI-1977) were used. Correlation, t-test and regression analysis was applied for data analysis. The results revealed that female had high emotional intelligence as compared to male.it also showed from the results that those who have low emotional intelligence had more psychopathological characteristcs.The results also revealed that those students who had poor emotional intelligence used maladaptive coping styles. Hence, it was inferred from the study that there is significant positive correlation between emotional intelligence, coping styles and psychopathology. Cross sectional nature of the study, use of self-report measures and non-probability sampling was the limitation of the study.

4. Effect Of Severity and Time Of Pruning on Growth , Yield and Quality of Custard Apple
Author(s): Dahapute V. M, Joshi P. S and Tayade S. A

Abstract: The experiment entitled effect of severity and time of pruning on growth, yield and quality of custard apple was carried out at Highway Block, CFR Station, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth Akola, during year 2016-17 with the objectives to the effect of different severity and time of pruning on growth, yield and quality of custard apple and to find out optimum severity and time of pruning for obtaining maximum yield and quality of custard apple. The pruning was done on main shoot, subsequent secondary and tertiary shoots from top to end on whole plant. Results revealed in respect to plant growth, plant volume, mean of plant spread, leaf area, was recorded significantly maximum in 30 cm pruning severity on 30th April. Minimum number of days for flowering was recorded in shoots without pruning (70.18 days). Highest numbers of flowers per shoot (13.07) were registered in 30 cm of pruning severity and 30th April on time of pruning. In case of yield and fruit attributes the highest fruit set was registered (62.56%), highest numbers of fruits per tree (76.00), maximum fruit yield was obtained (16.40 kg), maximum fruit weight (234.34g), Maximum fruit diameter (9.65cm) in total soluble solids ( 19.43°B ) and acidity ( 0.23 % ) in 30 cm pruning severity on 30th April. The effect of interaction between effect of severity and time of pruning on stem diameter, seed weight, splitting fruit and stoning fruit percentages was found non-significant.

5. Seroprevalence of Major Transfusion-Transmissible Infections Among Foreign Departing Employees From Itahari, Nepal
Author(s): Jenish Shakya, Bijay Kumar Shrestha and Hemanta Khana

Abstract: Transfusion-Transmissible Infections (TTIs) include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis that are transmitted from person to person through parenteral, administration of blood or blood products leading to serious health problems. The present study was lab based cross-sectional study conducted from February 2018 to August 2019 to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, HIV, hepatitis C, and syphilis among the foreign departing employees from Itahari, Sunsari, Nepal. The samples were screened for the presence of anti-HIV IgG, HBsAg, anti-syphilis and anti-HCV IgG using commercial rapid test kits following standard protocols. A total of 4260 samples processed, the overall seroprevalence of TTIs was found to be 1.22% (52/4260). Seroprevalence of HIV was found to be 0.05% (2/4260), HBV was found to be 0.53% (23/4260), HCV was found to be 0.18% (8/4260) and syphilis was found to be 0.45% (19/4260). Among the transfusion transmissible infections in individuals going for foreign employment, the most prevalent was found to be hepatitis B (0.53%). In overall, the TTIs infection was most prevalent in the age group of 24-29 (0.35%) and 30-35 (0.35%) years. Further investigation including studying the prevalence of TTIs in general population is required to address the issue and to formulate proper preventive, diagnosis and treatment procedures of these infections.

6. A Bio-Inspired Reward-Based Message Forwarding For Vehicular Social Network
Author(s): Aklilu Mandefro Messele

Abstract: The Ants capability of working together and their way of message transmission makes us inspired especially their cooperation for their common goal and dropping down pheromones which used as a trail for themselves and for others. We would use Ants broadcasting method for drivers’ cooperation and message forwarding. Therefore if there were any driver who couldn’t broadcast any emergency message related to car accident like Ants done to locate the food source, could be considered as a selfish node and couldn’t be rewarded as cooperatives do. The previous vehicle to vehicle communication or message forwarding schemes that was tried to motivate cooperative drivers used incentive methods in which it is not motivating all participant nodes and some of them used punishment methods. These types of methods are not effective to stimulate selfish drivers. We conducted the research using embedded traffic simulation in which it includes mobility and network simulation capabilities merged together and served as multi-functional software. From the tools falling into the embedded category is National Chiao Tung University network simulator (NCTUns) which provides a full range of network stack simulation tools. Watchdog was our selfishness detection method, in which the RSU controls whether nodes are cooperative or not because the (Road Side Unit) RSU knows where the nodes were located and in which path they are drive and what messages they broadcasted. The rewarding model we used is paying per packet. The payment principle is for each successfully transmitted unit-sized packet, each of N intermediate nodes should receive λ credits, whereas the service provider (SP) would pay λ ∗ N in total. The proposed solution was evaluated by the three performance metrics which are dropped packets, selfishness detection method and delivery ratio. Based on our experiments result the number of accident increased as the number of total nodes increased in the same simulation area. As the number of nodes participated on the area increases the probability of having an accident increases and the probability of stimulating selfish nodes increased using the same incentive method and amount because there is a probability of accident commit increases and the rewarding and acknowledgement messages also increases in which it can stimulate the selfish nodes.

7.Allelopathic Potential of Castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) Aqueous Extracts on Germination on Selected Crop Species
Author(s): Parreno J,Cempron B, Bucog N, Pepito M and Zamora C.

Abstract: Weeds in agricultural system are becoming problem nowadays in which it reduces yield of many crops. Synthetic herbicides are usually used to control weed growth. Meanwhile, using herbicides creates hazardous impacts on agricultural products and also increases environmental pollution. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the allelopahatic potential of Castor plant (fresh leaves, dry leaves, seeds) aqueous extracts on germination rate, germination value indices and root growth on selected crop species. The inhibitory effects of allelochemicals might be used against weeds as a controlling tool for decreasing weed emergence in field conditions. The study consist of 4 treatments replicated 5 times within 7 days. Germination rate, germination value indices and root length were collected in the 7th day of the experiment. Data gathered were analyzed using one way ANOVA and tukey HSD for comparison. Based on the results, it shows that fresh leaves and seed aqueous extract had an allopathic effect on the seed germination and germination value of Zea mays L. and Solanum lycopersicum. In terms of root length inhibition, all treatments had an inhibition effect on the selected crop species. The result showed great potential for the natural herbicide from the determined parts of identified plant.

8.Effects of Heavy Metals on Plant Growth and Metal Accumulation in Moringa Plant
Author(s): Waheed Yaseen, Bakhtawar Sajjad and Humayun Ajaz

Abstract: Moringa oleifera sprung in soil contaminated with Lead and Magnesium. Stress of heavy metals of different strength was applied in each replicate. Physical parameters are necrosis, chlorosis, and height of plant included in this research. The sample Leaves, roots and stems are collected from each replicate after a week, washed, dried weighed, crushed, digested with Aqua Regia and at the end filtered. The extract was diluted to a specific extent with distilled water and quantitatively measured with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The data collected was statistically analyzed. Measured the Toxicity level and optimum conditions for plant growth and yield was calculated from the data collected.

9.On Station Evaluation of Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture (IAA) On Yield of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum) and Tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum)
Author(s): Esayas Alemayehu, Alemayehu Wubie, AbelnehYimer and YaredTigabu

Abstract: Evaluation of integrated agriculture aquaculture (IAA) was conducted on station in the National Fisheries and Aquatic Life Research center (NFALRC), Sebeta. In this trial the effect of irrigation with pond water and spring water and application of inorganic fertilizer on yield and other parameters for Tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) were evaluated using randomized complete block design with three replications. Results show that there is variation in total yield and marketable yield as well as clusters per plant of tomato with plots treated with fertilizer having higher values. Among examined parameters, only clusters per plant of tomato varied significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. However, marketable yield and yield per plant did not show significant variation (p>0.05) among treatments. Nevertheless, all parameters in this trial did not show significant difference among treatments (P>0.05). The results of this trial indicate that using pond water to irrigate horticulture plots can partially replace the use of inorganic fertilizers thereby reducing both cost and environmental effects.

10.Analysis of The Contribution of China’s Industrial Policies to Agriculture Sector
Author(s): Nuhu A. Sansa

Abstract: Recent different literature argued that China’s agriculture sector contribution to economic development is deteriorating. The agriculture sector contribution with regard to Agriculture GDP contribution, agriculture employment, and foreign exchange earnings were decreased. The present study is undertaken to investigate the contribution of industrial policies to the Agriculture sector of China during the period from 2007 to 2018. Simple regression model employed as a methodology to investigate the contribution of industrial policies to the agriculture sector in China during the period from 2007 to 2018. The data of all agriculture macro economic variables applied in this study (Economic openness, Agriculture GDP, Agriculture Food Production, and Employment in Agriculture) were collected from the World Bank for the whole period from 2007 to 2018. In order to investigate the contribution of Industrial policies to the agriculture sector in China, industrial policies were represented by the economic openness which stand as independent variable, while agriculture GDP, Agriculture food production and employment in agriculture were dependent variables in the study. The information discovered in the study were in actual fact catching the attention. Information discovered as a result of the investigation shows that relationship between Economic openness and Agriculture GDP is Negative, While the relationship between economic openness and other Agriculture macro economic variables (Agriculture Food Production and Agriculture Employment) is Positive and meaningfully during the period from 2009 to 2018 in China. That means Industrial policies had meaningful contribution to Agriculture Food production and Agriculture Employment, While Industrial policies had no contribution to Agriculture GDP during the period from 2009 to 2018 in China.

11.The influence of Deposition Temperature on the Properties of Chemically Sprayed Nanostructured Cu2CdSnS4 Thin Films
Author(s): Hiba J. Ahmed, Asaad A. Kamil, Ammar A. Habeeb and Nabeel A. Bakr

Abstract: In this study, Cu2CdSnS4 thin films were deposited on glass substrates at fixed concentrations: 0.02 M of (CuCl2.2H2O), 0.08 M of CS (NH2)2 and 0.01 M of both SnCl2.2H2O and (CdCl2.2H2O) using Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) technique at different deposition temperatures (300, 350, 400 and 450) °C. The thickness of all samples were (300 ± 10) nm. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all films have a tetragonal structure with a preferred orientation of (112). The maximum value of the crystallite size was 8.09 nm at 400 °C deposition temperature. Raman spectra analysis confirmed the purity of the film peaks located at (332-333). The FESEM micrographs showed that the nanostructures appeared in the form of cauliflower. The highest average grain size was 62.8 nm for the film deposited at 300 °C substrate temperature. The optical properties of all films were studied by recording the transmittance and absorbance in the wavelength range (400-900) nm. The results showed that absorption occurs in the visible and ultraviolet regions. Through the Tauc’s equation, the optical energy gap was calculated for the allowed direct transition. Its value was in the range (1.59-1.40) eV. Therefore, these films are suitable for use in solar cell applications. Hall effect results showed that Cu2CdSnS4 thin films are p-type and the highest conductivity was 0.288 (Ω.cm)-1 at 400 ˚C corresponding to the maximum mobility value and the highest charge concentration.

12. Appraising the Forensic Services in Crime Investigation: A Study on Police Officers From Gamo Zone in SNNPR, Ethiopia.
Author(s): Shunmuga Sundaram G, Suresh Kumar R S, Taye Cherga and Dersolegn Yeneabat

Abstract:Criminal investigation is an art of uncovering the truth for the purpose of successful detection and prosecution. A successful and reliable investigation to stand for the justice requires a competent investigator and the use of technological aids from forensic and other scientific disciplines. This paper investigates the common perception among the police officers at different designation levels working in the Gamo region, SNNPR on the application of forensic services in crime investigation. The major objectives of this study are to a) Identify the level of awareness on forensic service among the crime investigation officers and b) To identify the lacunae in implementation of forensic services in crime investigation process. The sample size of 70 police officers in all categories of Constable, Sub- Inspector, Inspector, Deputy Commissioner in the Gama zonal region were included as respondents of the study. A purposive sampling method was adopted and structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. Statistical interpolation of the results was done using SPSS software. This study identified the lack of awareness among the police officers working in lower hierarchy level (<50%) on various forensic services, specialized forensic divisions, and application of forensic approaches during crime investigation. A positive correlation was observed with respect to the designation of officers and the lack of awareness among the police officers. Majority (<65%) of the police officers were not aware of the existence of fingerprinting division in the country. There exists a poor communication between key actors in the criminal justice system and financial resources not directed at the front end of the forensic process. The outcomes of this study would facilitate the identification of the lacunae in implementation of forensic services in the crime investigation process. This study emphasizes the need for immediate attention on managing the forensic illiteracy among police officers, mainly on the field such as fingerprint analysis, criminal investigation methods and cyber crime. It is the need of hour to promote the establishment of forensic wing at Gamo zonal level law enforcement.

13. Analysis of the Influence of High Technology Export to the Industry in Tanzania (2011-2017)
Author(s): Nuhu A. Sansa

Abstract:Recent studies in Tanzania explore that high - tech manufactured exports in total manufactured exports, have deteriorated when measured by the CIP index. Regarding that fact, the present study is undertaken to assess the influence of High Technology exports to the industry from 2011 to 2017 in Tanzania. The study considers a simple regression method to assess and answer whether the High technology exports have influence on the industry or not. Because the other studies have been done in the period from 1966 to 2011, the World bank data for the period from 2011 to 2017 were applied by the study to assess the influence of high technology export to industry in Tanzania. During the process of evaluating the influence of high technology export to the industry in Tanzania, the study assumes high technology export to be the independent variable while the industry to be a dependent variable of the study. The findings of the study were quite interesting. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between High technology export and industry GDP during the period from 2011 to 2017 in Tanzania. The results indicate that high technology exports have significant influence on the overall industry during the period from 2011 to 2017 in Tanzania.